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Citing essays: 3 main ways.

Correct citing is one of the basic requirements to the academic writing. When you are citing a work by some scholar you are showing your understanding and participation in the scholar discussion of your subject. It is important to save the balance between citing and presenting your own ideas so that the reader will see that the references are only a support to your own research. Learning how to cite correctly is an essential component of the academic study as it will help you to avoid plagiarism and demonstrate your familiarity with scholar works.  Here you can find the rules of citing in MLA and APA styles.

  1. Citing in APA style.
  • When you are indicating names of the authors first should go the last name and after it is the first name initial. For example: Burns, R.
  • If you have several authors their names are separated by commas and the last two are always connected with &.
  • The date of publication should appear in gaps after the name of the author. If a full date is available use it: O’Hagan, A. (2008, January 18).
  • The name of the essay is written without italics, quotation marks or underlining.  Only the first letter of the name and the first letter of subtitles should be capitalized.
  • You must indicate the name of editor of the collection where your source is from. Names are written in first-initial and last name format. Connect them with the word “In”. If you have only one author you should add “Ed.” and “Eds.” for multiple authors. For instance: Miller, J., & Smith, T. (Eds.). (1996). Cape Cod stories: Tales from Cape Cod, Nantucket, and Martha's Vineyard.
  • The title of the collection must be stated with the capitalized first letter of the first word. Do not forget to capitalize first nouns as well.
  • The page range is given in parenthesis after period with abbreviation pp.: (pp.35-47).
  • The city and the name of the publishing house must be specified: Arking, R. (2006). The biology of aging: Observations and principles (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
  1. 2.       Citing in MLA style.
  • Use the full last, first and middles names. The format is last-name, first-name. Additional authors are indicated in first-name, last name format: Searles, Baird, and Martin Last.
  • The title of the essay is provided in quotation marks, and the first letter of major words should be capitalized.
  • The book title must be written in italics and all the essential words should be capitalized.
  • The editors names indicated should be full and stated in first-name last-name format. If you have one editor put the abbreviation “Ed.” And in case there are two and more editors “Eds.” should be indicated. After that put a period.  For example, Toomer, Jean. Cane. Ed. Darwin T. Turner.
  • At the very end you need to list the city of publication, the name of publishing house and the year of publication. You do not have to indicate the full date: Hall, Donald, ed. The Oxford Book of American Literacy Anecdotes. New York: Oxford UP, 1981.
  • The first and the last pages of the text, which you used, should be specified in a following format: 45-68.

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