Tactics mean a set of techniques for achieving a goal. Rhetoric defines a tactic as an ability to choose the right line of behavior depending on a psychological portrait of an opponent.
We can also talk about studying tactics: for example, you need to develop special tactics to write a lot of college essays in a day and not to go crazy.
Communication is an art and an ability to clearly express your point of view on any issue. We have already talked about it in the previous article. It has always been very appreciated and respected.
But the ability to communicate also implies the ability to choose tactics of communication depending on the type of an interlocutor or goals set.
In science it is common to divide people into extroverts and introverts. Each type needs its own style of communication.
Extraverts are people who are in great need of communication. They are sociable. They are able to rejoice in their successes and successes of others. They themselves speak a lot, frankly, and unambiguously. Such people have many contacts in various social spheres. Often they become leaders in a team or in a company.
Introverts are people who sometimes find it difficult to communicate. Often even their dearest and nearest cannot imagine what they feel. Such people are reluctant to talk, they discuss their state only occasionally. In most cases, they keep everything inside. This does not contribute to their sincerity, so introverts are believed to live their lives alone, without friends.
If you are an extrovert, then do not force people around you to listen to long monologues. Try to listen more to your loved ones, give them the opportunity to talk about their experiences. Your conversations should not be superficial, avoid chattering.
If you are an introvert, then try to contact more people, even if it is extremely difficult for you to communicate. It is desirable that they be people of different ages. Prepare yourself for the fact that you will need to conduct a conversation.
You can imagine what academic life awaits you if you have chosen the tactic of ignoring your coursemates. It will not be life, but torture, believe us.
Humor, irony, and sarcasm strengthen emotional impact on listeners, help to defuse a situation. An ironical remark can embarrass an opponent.
Boomerang method ("hit the enemy with his or her own weapon"): the thesis or the argument turns against the one who expresses it.
Reduction to absurdity: falsity of the thesis is demonstrated since the consequences that follow it are contrary to reality.
Questions attack: in a dispute it is important to ask questions, as it is always more difficult to answer than to ask. The purpose of this method is to seize the initiative, to complicate the position of an opponent.
The argument to a person: instead of substantiating the thesis, people try to rely on feelings and moods of their listeners, evaluating not actions of a person, but his or her merits and demerits.
Rhetorical Methods of Influencing the Interlocutor
- Affirmation of a negative predicate;
- Negation of a negative predicate.
Such stylistic designs are more accessible to consciousness of an opponent, and therefore, are more convincing. The reason for this is that almost all negative concepts are created by sound substitution of positive concepts for a negation: a disease is not health, drunkenness is not sober, stupidity is not cleverness.
In conversation with groupmates try to avoid negation and pay attention to the general tone. You will see that it changes depending on presence or absence of negation. A not bad essay is not what you need. You need a good essay, and professionals from coolessay.net are ready to write it to you.
The category of the negative is secondary to the positive. Negation is not "nonexistence", but absence of existence. Cognition of surrounding reality cannot be negative since any perception has a cause, and therefore, a positive foundation.
In conversation we almost do not think about the correct correspondence of the concepts of essences and definitions with usual names of ideas. Most people have very vague ideas of the meaning of the words they say. Their minds slip on the surface of the generally recognized word combinations as a result of laziness or inability to comprehend true content. In conversation with such interlocutors, one should not use abstract ideas that require insight and imagination. The concept of "failure" is more convincing for them than its sound substitutions: error, defeat, collapse, fiasco, etc.
The assertion that there is no primary basis for our ideas is preferable to negations that follow them. Since people already have little agreement on certain ideas, this discrepancy increases with the use of "sound substitutions". When explaining something, people tend to use metaphors in the light of their general obviousness.
Perception of information occurs in the following sequence: at first, we realize the meaning of the substitution, i.e. we select customary ideas associated with this word, then we identify a link with a positive statement that is denied.
Reducing this line of reasoning by using direct negation of a positive idea in speech, we eliminate inevitable mistakes of the interlocutor's thinking, caused, perhaps, by the incorrect correspondence of ideas or simply by the inability to contemplate logical connections.
You can use these techniques in a playful manner.
In general, they can be used in communication to produce the desired effect, capture attention of the opponent, and achieve certain goals.
Communication can be verbal and non-verbal. Psychologists have estimated that verbal information we perceive takes 20%, and non-verbal information takes about 80%. Conscious trust is primarily related to content, while subconscious trust is connected with non-verbal communication.
Verbal and Non-Verbal Information
During a telephone conversation, body language can’t convey information, so it is mostly transmitted by voice. In this case, words determine the proportion of information, the rest is the level of impact.
There is one more rule. If consciousness comprehends the information in way, but subconsciousness does it in a completely different one, such subconscious comprehension usually wins. In fact, this is used by scammers.
For example, even the most vigilant people may entrust them to guard their luggage. But then those people would be surprised that not only a new extremely pleasant acquaintance disappeared, but their suitcases either. And consciousness finds a logical explanation for the already accomplished deed.
We Start a Conversation
When we meet a friend, first of all we usually ask "How are you?" Most often we are answered: "I am fine."
Both the question and the answer are pronounced automatically. Most people do not feel any sensations when they reply briefly "I am fine." They just pronounce the word that has become familiar.
However, an unconventional answer to the question about business allows us to start any conversation on a positive note. If you respond with something like "awesome" or "amazing", then the effect will be completely different.
Most people are happy to talk, but you can come across someone who prefers to stay alone and is not too interested in communicating. However, it is very easy to talk to a stranger. Once you have chosen a person to communicate, the next step is a smile, visual contact, and then a conversation itself.
Although many people find it difficult to choose the right start for a conversation, research shows that to establish new contact, your first words play almost no role. Your words should not be too smart or full of deep meaning.
A simple remark is enough. What is really important is the use of all opportunities to establish contact and maintain a conversation. If your interlocutor is interested, he or she will certainly give you some supporting information that will help you find common interests and continue the conversation. It is very simple to find a topic. It is best to choose from the following ones:
- Your interlocutor;
It is best to begin a conversation by asking a question, expressing an opinion, or stating a fact. And then there will be no problems.